Table of Contents

For a history of changes in the CFEngine version you have installed, see the ChangeLog and ChangeLog.Enterprise files in /var/cfengine/share/doc. The running change log for the core repository is also available online.

    - classesmatching(): order of classes changed

    - Don't limit CSV line length to 4096 bytes (Redmine #7400)
    - Legacy package promise: Result classes are now defined if
      the package being promised is already up to date. (Redmine #7399)
    - Reduce malloc() thread contention on heavily loaded
      cf-serverd, by not exiting early in the logging function, if
      no message is to be printed (Redmine #7624)
    - If file_select.file_types is set to symlink and there
      are regular files in the scanned directory, CFEngine no longer
      produces an unneccessary error message (Redmine #6996)
    - For call collect in Enterprise, default collect_window
      setting increased from 10 to 30 seconds for reliability reasons
      in large-scale environments.
    - Fix ps options for FreeBSD to check processes only in current
      host and not in jails
    - Fix HP-UX specific bug that caused a lot of log output to disappear
    - fix build failure on FreeBSD 7.1 (Redmine #7415)
    - Fix noise from internal policy to upgrade windows agents
      (Redmine #7456)
    - fix cfruncommand not working if it does not contain spaces,
      with the TLS protocol (Redmine #7405)
    - Fix cf-serverd error messages with classic protocol clients
      (Redmine #7818)
    - Fix two cases where action_policy warn still produces errors
      (Redmine #7274)
    - action_policy "warn" now correctly produces warnings instead
      of various other verbosity levels. (Redmine #7274)
    - No longer hang when changing permissions/ownership on fifos
      (Redmine #7030)
    - Fix a regression which would sometimes cause "Permission
      denied" errors on files inside directories with very restricted
      permissions. (Redmine #7808)
    - Fix classes being set because of hash collision in the implementation.
      (Redmine #7912)
    - redmine#7952: Fix use-after-free in ArrayMap and HashMap
      (Redmine #7952)
    - CFEngine on Windows no longer truncates log messages if the
      program in question is killed halfway through.
    - If there is an error saving a mustache template file
      it is now logged with log-level error (was inform)
    - Fix build with musl libc (Redmine #7455)
    - Show errors regarding failure to copy extended attributes
      when doing a local file copy. Errors could happen when copying
      across two different mount points where the support for extended
      attributes is different between the mount points.
    - The [`isvariable()`][isvariable] function call now correctly accepts all
      array variables when specified inline. Previously it would not accept
      certain special characters, even though they could be specified
      indirectly by using a variable to hold it (Redmine #7088)
    - Fix bad option nlwp to vzps on Proxmox / OpenVZ (Redmine #6961)
    - Namespaced classes can now be specified on the command line.
    - cf-agent, cf-execd, cf-promises, cf-runagent and cf-serverd honor
      multiple -D, -N and -s arguments
      (Redmine #7191)
    - Fix file descriptor leak when there are network errors
    - Fix package not installing on Windows 2008 32-bit (Redmine #7478)
    - Fixed several bugs which prevented CFEngine from loading
      libraries from the correct location. This affected several platforms.
      (Redmine #6708)
    - It is possible to edit the same value in multiple regions
      of one file (Redmine #7460)
    - Upgrade LMDB to version 0.9.17. (Redmine #7879)
    - Upgrade dependencies to following patch versions:
      - Apache 2.2.31
      - apr-util 1.5.4
      - Git
      - Curl 7.47.0
      - Libvirt
      - LibXML 2.9.3
      - LMDB 0.9.18
      - MySQL 5.1.72
      - OpenLDAP 2.4.44
      - OpenSSL 0.9.8zh
      - PCRE 8.38
      - PostgreSQL 9.0.22 (Agent)
      - PostgreSQL 9.3.11 (Hub)
      - PHP 5.4.45

        Bug fixes:
        - Fixed insert_lines with preserve_block not converging if the block
          contains blank lines. (Redmine #7094)
        - Fixed incorrect message that permissions were repaired in dry-run
          mode. (Redmine #7082)
        - Fixed LMDB database sometimes getting corrupted on HP-UX, especially
          under load. (Redmine #6994)
        - Fixed and improve error messages in process promises. (Redmine #7219)
        - Fixed "cf-agent --self-diagnostics" segfaulting. (Redmine #7288)
        - Fixed a bug causing cf-agent to write at least 100MB to disk after
          every execution. (Redmine #7242)
        - Fixed a bug which caused cf-execd to react very slowly to signals.
          (Redmine #6659 and #7193)
        - Fixed a bug which could cause cf-execd to immediately kill itself
          after a reboot. (Redmine #7244)
        - Fixed systemd detection when /sbin/init is a symlink (Redmine #7297)
        - Removed useless error messages about failure to set socket timeout.
          The message can still be seen in verbose mode. (Redmine #6486)
        - Fixed a bug causing user creation not to work on HP-UX. (Redmine
        - Fixed broken bootstrap on Debian 8. Note that Debian 8 is not an
          officially supported platform with the 3.6 series. (Redmine #7042)
        - Fixed report collection not working correctly after initial install
          on systemd systems. (Redmine #7045)
        - Fixed a bug which caused service script to be unable to kill daemons
          on openvz/lxc hosts. (Redmine #3394)
        - Fixed replace_or_add bundle which would insert an extra line if used
          multiple times. (Redmine #7035)
        - "redhat_pure" hosts no longer includes Oracle Linux. (Redmine #7081)
        - Removed useless messages from "standard_services" bundle. (Redmine
        - Fixed a bug which causes "standard_services" bundle not to start a
          service unless it was already running. (Redmine #7258)
        - Fix process_result logic to match the purpose of body process_select
          days_older_than (Redmine #3009)

        - Introduced "systemd" hard class. (Redmine #6995)
        - Added paths to dtrace, zfs and zpool on FreeBSD in masterfiles.

        Bug fixes:
        - Fixed build error on certain RHEL5 and SLES10 setups. (Redmine #6841)
        - Fixed a bug which caused dangling symlinks not to be removed.
          (Redmine #6582)
        - Fixed data_readstringarrayidx function not preserving the order of the
          array it's producing. (Redmine #6920)
        - Fixed a bug which sometimes caused CFEngine to kill the wrong daemon
          if both the host and a container inside the host were running
          CFEngine. (Redmine #6906)
        - Made sure the rm_rf_depth bundle also deletes the base directory.
          (Redmine #7009)
        - Fixed monitord reporting wrongly on open ports. (Redmine #6926)
        - Skip adding the class when its name is longer than 1024 characters.
          Fixed core dump when the name is too large. (Redmine #7013)
        - Fixed detection of stopped process on Solaris. (Redmine #6946)
        - Fixed infinite loop (Redmine #6992) plus a couple more minor
          bugs in edit_xml promises.

        - Introduced users promises support on HP-UX platform.
        - Introduced process promises support on HP-UX platform.

        Bug fixes:
        - Fixed bug on FreeBSD which sometimes led to the wrong process being
          killed (Redmine #2330)
        - Fixed package version comparison sometimes failing with rpm package
          manager (Redmine #6807)
        - Fixed a bug in users promises which would sometimes set the wrong
          password hash if the user would also be unlocked at the same time.
        - Fixed a bug on AIX which would occationally kill the wrong process.
        - Improved error message for functions that require an absolute path.
          (Redmine #6877)
        - Fixed some spelling errors in examples.
        - Fixed error in out-of-tree builds when building cf-upgrade.
        - Fixed a bug which would make cf-agent exit with an error if it was
          built with a custom log directory, and that directory did not exist.
        - Fixed ordering of evaluating promises when depends_on is used.
          (Redmine #6484, Redmine #5462)
        - Skip non-empty directories silently when recursively deleting.
          (Redmine #6331)
        - Fix memory exhaustion with list larger than 4994 items.
          (Redmine # 6672)
        - Fix cf-execd segfault on IP address detection (Redmine #6905).
        - Fix hard class detection of RHEL6 ComputeNode (Redmine #3148).

        New features:
        - support for HP-UX 11.23 and later
        - experimental support for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

        Bug fixes:
        - fix getindices on multi-dimensional arrays (Redmine #6779)
        - fix mustache template method to run in dryrun mode (Redmine #6739)
        - set mailto and mailfrom settings for execd in (Redmine #6702)
        - fix conflation of multi-index entries in arrays (Redmine #6674)
        - fix promise locking when transferring using (Redmine #6623)
        - update JSON parser to return an error on truncation (Redmine #6608)
        - fix sys.hardware_addresses not expanded (Redmine #6603)
        - fix opening database txn /var/cfengine/cf_lastseen.lmdb:
          MDB_READERS_FULL when running cf-keys --show-hosts (Redmine #6602)
        - fix segfault (Null pointer dereference) when select_end in
          delete_lines never matches (Redmine #6589)
        - fix max_file_size => "0" not disabling or allowing any size
          (Redmine #6588)
        - fix ifvarclass, with iteration over list, failing when deleting
          files with time condition (Redmine #6577)
        - fix classes defined with "or" constraint are never set if any value
          doesn't evaluate to a scalar (Redmine #6569)
        - update "mailfrom" default in default policy (Redmine #6567)
        - fix logrotate ambiguity of filename (Redmine #6563)
        - fix parsing JSON files (Redmine #6549)
        - reduce write count activity to /var partition (Redmine #6523)
        - fix files delete attribute incorrectly triggering promise_kept
          (Redmine #6509)
        - update services bundle output related to chkconfig when run in
          inform mode. (Redmine #6492)
        - fix Solaris serverd tests (Redmine #6406)
        - fix broken bechaviour of merging arrays with readstringarray
          (Redmine #6369)
        - fix ifelapsed bug with bundle nesting (Redmine #6334)
        - fix handling cf_null in bundlesequence (Redmine #6119)
        - fix maparray reading whole input array when using subarray
          (Redmine #6033)
        - fix directories being randomly changed to files (Redmine #6027)
        - update defaults promise type to work with classes (Redmine #5748)
        - systemd integration in services promises (Redmine #5415)
        - fix touch attribute ignoring action = warn_only (Redmine #3172)
        - fix 4KB string limit in functions readfile, string_downcase,
          string_head, string_reverse, string_length, string_tail,
          string_upcase (Redmine #2912)

        Bug fixes:
        - don't regenerate software_packages.csv every time (Redmine #6441)
        - improve verbose message for package_list_command
        - fix missing log output on AIX (Redmine #6434)
        - assorted fixes to dirname() esp on Windows (Redmine #4716)
        - fix package manager detection
        - fix build issues on FreeBSD
        - allow copying of dead symbolic links (Redmine #6175)
        - preserve order in readstringarrayidx (Redmine #6466)
        - fix passing of unexpanded variable references to arrays
          (Redmine #5893)
        - use entries for new {admin,deny}_{ips,hostnames} constraints in
          the relevant legacy lists (Redmine #6542)
        - cope with ps's numeric fields overflowing to the right
        - interpret failing function calls in ifvarclass as class not set
          (Redmine #6327)
        - remove unexpanded lists when extending lists (Redmine #6541)
        - infer start-time of a process from elapsed when needed
          (Redmine #4094)
        - fix input range definition for laterthan() function (Redmine #6530)
        - don't add trailing delimiter when join()'ing lists ending with a
          null-value (Redmine #6552)
        - 9999999999 (ten 9s) or higher has been historically used as an upper
          bound in CFEngine code and policy but because of overflow on 32-bit
          platforms it caused problems with big numbers. Fixed in two ways:
          first change all existing policy uses to 999999999 (nine 9s instead
          of eleven 9s), second fix the C code to not wrap-around in case of
          overflow, but use the LONG_MAX value (Redmine #6531).
        - cf-serverd and other daemons no longer reload their configuration
          every minute if CFEngine is built with an inputs directory outside
          of the work directory (not the default). (Redmine #6551)

        New features:
        - Introduced Solaris and AIX support into the 3.6 series, with many associated build and
          bug fixes.

        - Short-circuit evaluation of classes promises if class is already set (Redmine #5241)
        - fix to assume all non-specified return codes are failed in commands promises (Redmine #5986)
        - cf-serverd logs reconfiguration message to NOTICE (was INFO) so that it's always logged in syslog

        Bug fixes:
        - File monitoring has been completely rewritten (changes attribute in files promise), which
          eliminates many bugs, particularly regarding files that are deleted. Upgrading will keep
          all monitoring data, but downgrading again will reinitialize the DB, so all files will be
          reported as if they were new. (Redmine #2917)
        - $(this.promiser) expands in files promises for 'transformer', 'edit_template',
          'copy_from.source', 'file_select.exec_program', 'classes' and 'action' bodies
          (Redmine #1554, #1496, #3530, #1563)
        - 'body changes' notifies about disappeared files in file monitoring (Redmine #2917)
        - Set not-kept classes when files or commands promise should be repaired, but is warn-only (Redmine #2359)
        - Fixed CFEngine template producing a zero-sized file (Redmine #6088)
        - Add 0-9 A-Z _ to allowed context of module protocol (Redmine #6063)
        - Extend ps command column width on Solaris and filter on zone
          rather than adding it to the ps output.
        - Fixed strftime() function on Solaris when called with certain specifiers.
        - Fixed users promise bug regarding password hashes in a NIS/NSS setup.
        - Fixed $(sys.uptime), $(sys.systime) and $(sys.sysday) in AIX. (Redmine #5148, #5206)
        - Fixed processes_select complaining about "Unacceptable model uncertainty examining processes" (Redmine #6337)
        - ps command for linux has been changed to cope with big rss values (Redmine #6337)
        - Address ps -axo shift on FreeBSD 10 and later (Redmine #5667)
        - methods and services promises respect action_policy => "warn" (Redmine #5924)
        - LMDB should no longer deadlock if an agent is killed on the hub while holding the DB lock.
          Note that the change only affects binary packages shipped by CFEngine, since the upstream
          LMDB project has not yet integrated the change. (Redmine #6013)


        - Changes to logging output
            - add process name and pid in syslog message (GitHub #789)
            - cf-serverd logging levels are now more standardised:
                  - INFO logs only failures
                  - VERBOSE logs successful requests as well
                  - DEBUG logs actual protocol traffic.
            - cf-serverd now logs the relevant client IP address on
              each message.
            - Logging contexts to local database (cf_classes.tcdb) has been deprecated.
            - 'usebundle' promisees are logged for all the bundle promises
            - output from 'reports' promises has nothing prefixed except 'R: '
            - a log line with stack path is generated when the promise type evaluated changes
        - LMDB ( is the default database for local data storage : use version 0.9.9 or later
          cf-agent --self-diagnostics (-x) is only implemented for TCDB, not for LMDB
        - port argument in readtcp() and selectservers() may be a
          service name (e.g. "http", "pop3").
        - Enable source file in agent copy_from promises to be a relative path.
            - file "changes" reporting now reports with log level "notice", instead of "error".
        - process_results default to AND'ing of set attributes if not specified (Redmine #3224)
        - interface is now canonified in sys.hardware_mac[interface] to align with
          sys.ipv4[interface] (Redmine #3418)
        - cf-promises no longer errors on missing bodies when run without --full-check (-c)
        - Linux flavor "SUSE" now correctly spelled with all uppercase in variables and class names
          (Redmine #3734).  The "suse" lowercase version is also provided for convenience (Redmine #5417).
        - $(this.promise_filename) and $(..._dirname) variables are now absolute paths. (Redmine #3839)
        - including the same file multiple times in 'body control inputs' is not an error
        - portnumber in body copy_from now supports service names like
          "cfengine", "pop3" etc, check /etc/services for more.
        - The policy, run on bootstrap and in some other
          unusual cases, has been extracted from C code into libpromises/
        - masterfiles
            - cf_promises_validated is now in JSON format
            - timestamp key is timestamp (sec since unix epoch) of last time validated
            - the masterfiles now come from and are
              not in the core repository
        - cf-serverd calls cf-agent with -Dcfruncommand when executing cf-runagent requests
      - Mark as removed: promise_notkept_log_include, promise_notkept_log_exclude, promise_repaired_log_include,
        promise_repaired_log_exclude, classes_include, classes_exclude, variables_include,
        variables_exclude attributes from report_data_select body (syntax is valid but not functional).
        They have been replaced by the following attributes: promise_handle_include, 
        promise_handle_exclude, metatags_include, metatags_exclude.

        New features:
        - New promise type "users" for managing local user accounts.
        - TLS authentication and fully encrypted network protocol.
          Additions specific to the new type of connections:
            - New attribute "allowlegacyconnects" in body server control,
              which enables serving policy via non-latest cfengine protocol,
              to the given list of hosts. If the option is absent, it
              defaults to allow all hosts. To refuse non-TLS connections,
              specify an empty list.
            - New attribute "protocol_version" in body copy_from, and body
              common control, which defines the preferred protocol for
              outgoing connections.. Allowed values at the moment: "0" or
              "undefined", "classic" or "1", "latest" or "2". By leaving the
              copy_from option as undefined the common control option is
              used, and if both are undefined then classic protocol is used
              by default.
            - The new networking protocol uses TLS for authentication,
              after which all dialog is encrypted within the established
              TLS session.  cf-serverd is still able to speak the legacy
              protocol with old agents.
            - The 'skipverify' option in 'body server control' is
              deprecated and only left for compatibility; it does
            - cf-serverd does not hang up the connection if some request
              fails, so that the client can add more requests.
            - For the connections using the new protocol, all of the
              paths in bundle server access_rules now differentiate
              between a directory and a file using the trailing
              slash. If the path exists then this is auto-detected and
              trailing slash appended automatically. You have to append
              a trailing slash manually to an inexistent or symbolic
              path (e.g. "/path/to/$(connection.ip)/") to force
              recursive access.
        - New in 'access' promises for 'bundle server access_rules'
            - Attributes "admit_ips", "admit_hostnames", "admit_keys",
              "deny_ips", "deny_hostnames", "deny_keys"
            - "admit_keys" and "deny_keys" add the new functionality
              of controlling access according to host identity,
              regardless of the connecting IP.
            - For these new attributes, regular expressions
              are not allowed, only CIDR notation for "admit/deny_ips", exact
              "SHA=..." strings for "admit/deny_keys", and exact hostnames
              (e.g. "") or subdomains (starting with dot,
              e.g. "") for "admit/deny"_hostnames. Same rules
              apply to 'deny_*' attributes.
            - These new constraints and the paths in access_rules, can contain
              special variables "$(connection.ip)", "$(connection.hostname)",
              "$(connection.key)", which are expanded dynamically for every
              received connection.
            - For connections using the new protocol, "admit" and "deny"
              constraints in bundle server access_rules are being phased
              out, preferred attributes are now "admit_ips", "deny_ips",
              "admit_hostnames", "deny_hostnames", "admit_keys",
            - New "shortcut" attribute in bundle server access_rules used to
              dynamically expand non-absolute request paths.
        - masterfiles
                - standard library split: lib/3.5 (compatibility) and lib/3.6 (mainline)
                - many standard library bundles and bodies, especially packages- and file-related,
                  were revised and fixed
                - supports both Community and Enterprise
                - new 'inventory/' structure to provide OS, dmidecode, LSB, etc. system inventory
                  (configured mainly in
                - cf_promises_release_id contains the policy release ID which is the GIT HEAD SHA
                  if available or hash of tree
                - a bunch'o'bundles to make starting with CFEngine easier:
                - file-related: file_mustache, file_mustache_jsonstring, file_tidy, dir_sync, file_copy,
              file_link, file_hardlink, file_empty, file_make
                - packages-related: package_absent, package_present, package_latest,
              package_specific_present, package_specific_absent, package_specific_latest, package_specific
                - XML-related: xml_insert_tree_nopath, xml_insert_tree, xml_set_value, xml_set_attribute
                - VCS-related: git_init, git_add, git_checkout, git_checkout_new_branch,
              git_clean, git_stash, git_stash_and_clean, git_commit, git
                - process-related: process_kill
                - other: cmerge, url_ping, logrotate, prunedir
        - New command line options for agent binaries
            - New options to cf-promises
                - '--show-classes' and '--show-vars'
                - '--eval-functions' controls whether cf-promises should evaluate functions
            - Colorized output for agent binaries with command line option '--color'
              (auto-enabled if you set CFENGINE_COLOR=1)
        - New language features
            - New variable type 'data' for handling of structured data (ie JSON),
              including supporting functions:
                - 'data_readstringarray' - read a delimited file into a data map
                - 'data_readstringarrayidx' - read a delimited file into a data array
                - 'datastate' - create a data variable with currently set classes and variables
                - 'datatype' - determine the type of the top element of a container
                - 'format' - %S can be used to serialize 'data' containers into a string
                - 'mergedata' - merge two data containers, slists/ilists/rlists, or "classic"
                  arrays into a data container
                - 'parsejson' - create a data container from a JSON string
                - 'readjson' - create a data container from a file that contains JSON
                - 'storejson' - serialize a data container into a string
                - Most functions operating on lists can also operate on data containers
                - pass a data container to a bundle with the @(container) notation
                - the module protocol accepts JSON for data containers with the '%' sigil
            - Tagging of classes and variables allows annotating of language construct with
              meta data; supporting functionality:
                - The module protocol in 'commands' promises has been extended to allow setting
                  of tags of created variables and classes, and the context of created variables
                - 'getclassmetatags' - returns list of meta tags for a class
                - 'getvariablemetatags' - returns list of meta tags for a variable
            - 'body file control' has an 'inputs' attribute to include library files and other
            - bundlesequences can be built with bundlesmatching() based on bundle name and tags
        - New attributes in existing promise types and bodies
            - New option 'preserve_all_lines' for insert_type in insert_lines promises
            - Caching of expensive system functions to avoid multiple executions of
              execresult() etc, can be controlled via cache_system_functions attribute in
              body common control
            - New option 'mailsubject' in body executor control allows defining the subject
              in emails sent by CFEngine
            - Support for Mustache templates in 'files' promises; use 'template_method' and
              'template_data' attributes.  Without 'template_data' specified, uses datastate().
        - New and improved functions
            - 'bundlesmatching' - returns list of defined bundles matching a regex and tags
            - 'canonifyuniquely' - converts a string into a unique, legal class name
            - 'classesmatching' - returns list of set classes matching a regex and tags
            - 'eval' - evaluates mathematical expressions; knows SI k, m, g quantifiers, e.g. "100k"
            - 'findfiles' - list files matching a search pattern; use "**" for recursive searches
            - 'makerule' - evaluates whether a target file needs to be rebuilt from sources
            - 'max', 'min' - returns maximum and minimum of the numbers in a container or list
              (sorted by a 'sort' method)
            - 'mean' - returns the mean of the numbers in a container or list
            - 'nth' - learned to look up by key in a data container holding a map
            - 'packagesmatching' - returns a filtered list of installed packages.
            - 'readfile' - learned to read system files of unknown size like those in /proc
            - 'sort' - can sort lexicographically, numerically (int or real), by IP, or by MAC
            - 'string_downcase', 'string_upcase' - returns the lower-/upper-case version of a
            - 'string_head', 'string_tail' - returns the beginning/end of a string
            - 'string_length' - returns the length of a string
            - 'string_reverse' - reverses a string
            - 'string_split' - improved implementation, deprecates 'splitstring'
            - 'variablesmatching' - returns a list of variables matching a regex and tags
            - 'variance' - returns the variance of numbers in a list or container
        - New hard classes
            - Introduced alias 'policy_server' for context 'am_policy_hub' (the latter will
              be deprecated)
            - all the time-based classes have GMT equivalents
        - New variables
            - 'sys.bindir' - the location of the CFEngine binaries
            - 'sys.failsafe_policy_path' - the location of the failsafe policy file
            - 'sys.inputdir' - the directory where CFEngine searches for policy files
            - 'sys.key_digest' - the digest of the host's cryptographic key
            - 'sys.libdir', 'sys.local_libdir' - the location of the CFEngine libraries
            - 'sys.logdir' - the directory where the CFEngine log files are saved
            - 'sys.masterdir' - the location of masterfiles on the policy server
            - 'sys.piddir' - the directory where the daemon pid files are saved
            - 'sys.sysday' - the number of days since the beginning of the UNIX epoch
            - 'sys.systime' - the number of seconds since the beginning of the UNIX epoch
            - 'sys.update_policy_path' - the name of the update policy file
            - 'sys.uptime' - the number of minutes the host has been online
            - 'this.promise_dirname' - the name of the file in which the current promise
              is defined
            - 'this.promiser_uid' - the ID of the user running cf-agent
            - 'this.promiser_gid' - the group ID of the user running cf-agent
            - 'this.promiser_ppid' - the ID of the  parent process running cf-agent

        - 'splitstring' - deprecated by 'string_split'
        - 'track_value'
        - 'skipverify'

        Bug fixes: for a complete list of fixed bugs, see Redmine at
        - various fixes in evaluation and variable resolution
        - Improve performance of list iteration (Redmine #1875)
        - Removed limitation of input length to internal buffer sizes
            - directories ending with "/" are not ignored
            - lsdir() always return a list now, never a scalar
        - 'abortclasses' fixed to work in common bundles and other cases
        - namespaced 'edit_line' bundles now work (Redmine#3781)
        - lists are interpolated in correct order (Redmine#3122)
        - cf-serverd reloads policies properly when they change
        - lots of leaks (memory and file descriptor) fixed

       - Improved security checks of symlink ownership. A symlink created by a user pointing
         to resources owned by a different user will no longer be followed.
       - Changed the way package versions are compared in package promises. (Redmine #3314)
         In previous versions the comparison was inconsistent. This has been fixed, but may
         also lead to behavior changes in certain cases. In CFEngine 3.5.3, the comparison
         works as follows:
         For instance:
                 apache-2.2.31              ">="            "2.2.0"
         will result in the package being installed.

       Bug fixes:
       - fix cf-monitord crash due to incorrect array initialization (Redmine #3180)
       - fix cf-serverd stat()'ing the file tree every second (Redmine #3479)
       - correctly populate sys.hardware_addresses variable (Redmine #2936)
       - add support for Debian's GNU/kfreebsd to build system (Redmine #3500)
       - fix possible stack corruption in guest_environments promises (Redmine #3552)
       - work-around hostname trunctation in HP-UX's uname (Redmine #3517)
       - fix body copy purging of empty directories (Redmine #3429)
       - make discovery and loading of avahi libraries more robust
       - compile and packaging fixes for HP-UX, AIX and Solaris
       - fix fatal error in lsdir() when directory doesn't exist (Redmine #3273)
       - fix epoch calculation for stime inrange calculation (Redmine #2921)

       Bug fixes:
       - fix delayed abortclasses checking (Redmine #2316, #3114, #3003)
       - fix maplist arguments bug (Redmine #3256)
       - fix segfaults in cf-pomises (Redmine #3173, 3194)
       - fix build on Solaris 10/SmartOS (Redmine #3097)
       - sanitize characters from /etc/issue in sys.flavor for Debian (Redmine #2988)
       - Fix segfault when dealing with files or data > 4K (Redmine #2912, 2698)
       - Don't truncate keys to 126 characters in getindices (Redmine #2626)
       - files created via log_* actions now have mode 600 (Redmine #1578)
       - fix wrong log message when a promise is ignored due to 'ifvarclass' not matching
       - fix lifetime of persistent classes (Redmine #3259)
       - fix segfault when process_select body had no process_result attribute
         Default to AND'ed expression of all specified attributes (Redmine #3224)
       - include system message in output when acl promises fail
       - fix invocation of standard_services bundle and corresponding promise compliance (Redmine #2869)


       - file changes are logged with log level Notice, not Error
       - the CFEngine Standard Library in masterfiles/libraries is now split into
         promise-type specific policy files, and lives in a version-specific directory.
         This should have no impact on current code, but allows more granular include of
         needed stdlib elements (Redmine #3044)

       Bug fixes:
       - fix recursive copying of files (Redmine #2965)
       - respect classes in templates (Redmine ##2928)
       - fix timestamps on Windows (Redmine #2933)
       - fix non-root cf-agent flooding syslog (Redmine #2980)
       - fix email flood from cf-execd due to timestamps in agent output (Redmine #3011)
       - Preserve security context when editing or copying local files (Redmine #2728)
       - fix path for sys.crontab on redhat systems (Redmine #2553)
       - prevent incorrect "insert_lines promise uses the same select_line_matching anchor" warning (Redmine #2778)
       - Fix regression of setting VIPADDRESS to (Redmine #3010)
       - Fix "changes" promise not receiving status when file is missing (Redmine #2820)
       - Fix symlinks being destroyed when editing them (Redmine #2363)
       - Fix missing "promise kept" status for the last line in a file (Redmine #2943)


       New features:
       - classes promises now take an optional scope constraint.
       - new built-in functions: every, none, some, nth, sublist, uniq, filter
         - every
         - none
         - some
         - nth
         - sublist
         - uniq
         - filter
         - classesmatching
         - strftime
         - filestat
         - ifelse
         - maparray
         - format
       - cf-promises flag --parse-tree is replaced by --policy-output-format=, requiring the
          user to specify the output format (none, cf, json)
       - cf-promises allows partial check of policy (without body common control) without integrity check;
          --full-check enforces integrity check
       - agent binaries support JSON input format (.json file as generated by cf-promises)
       - cf-key: new options --trust-key/-t and --print-digest/-p
       - Class "failsafe_fallback" is defined in when main policy contains errors and
         failsafe is run because of this
       - add scope attribute for body classes (Redmine #2013)
       - Better diagnostics of parsing errors
       - Error messages from parser now show the context of error
       - new cf-agent option: --self-diagnostics
       - new output format, and --legacy-output
       - warnings for cf-promises.
       - Enable zeroconf-discovery of policy hubs for automatic bootstrapping
         if Avahi is present
       - Support for sys.cpus on more platforms than Linux & HPUX

       - parser no longer allows ',' after promiser or promisee. must be either ';' or lval
       - Make parser output in GCC compatible format the only supported format
         (remove --gcc-brief-format flag)

       - Silence license warnings in Enterprise Free25 installations
       - action_policy => "warn" causes not_kept classes to be set on promise needing repair.
       - command line option version (-V) now prints a shorter parsable version without graphic
       - implicit execution of server and common bundles taking arguments is skipped in cf-serverd.
       - WARNING: option --policy-server removed, require option to --bootstrap instead
       - process promises don't log if processes are out of range unless you
         run in verbose mode
       - reports promises are now allowed in any context (Redmine #2005)
       - cf-report has been removed
       - cf-execd: --once implies --no-fork
       - Version info removed from mail subject in the emails sent by cf-execd.
         The subject will only contain "[fqname/ipaddress]" instead of "communnity/nova [fqname/ipaddress]"
         Please change your email filters accordingly if necessary.
       - "outputs" promise type is retired. Their semantics was not clear, and the functionality
         is better suited for control body setting, not a promise.
       - Tokyo Cabinet databases are now automatically checked for
         correctness during opening. It should prevent a number of issues
         with corrupted TC databases causing binaries to hang.
       - Improved ACL handling on Windows, which led to some syntax changes. We now consistently
         use the term "default" to describe ACLs that can be inherited by child objects. These
         keywords have received new names:
           acl_directory_inherit -> acl_default
            specify_inherit_aces -> specify_default_aces
         The old keywords are deprecated, but still valid. In addition, a new keyword
         "acl_inherit" controls inheritance behavior on Windows. This feature does not exist on
         Unix platforms. (Redmine #1832)
       - Networking code is moved from libpromises to its own library,
         libcfnet. Work has begun on making the API more sane and thread-safe.
         Lots of legacy code was removed.
       - Add getaddrinfo() replacement in libcompat (borrowed from PostgreSQL).
       - Replace old deprecated and non thread-safe resolver calls with
         getaddrinfo() and getnameinfo().
       - Hostname2IPString(), IPString2Hostname() are now thread-safe, and are
         returning error when resolution fails.
       - Running cf-execd --once now implies --no-fork, and also does not wait
         for splaytime to pass.
       - execresult(), returnszero() and commands promises no longer requires the first word
         word to be an absolute path when using the shell. (Part of Redmine #2143)
       - commands promises useshell attribute now accepts "noshell" and "useshell" values. Boolean
         values are accepted but deprecated. (Part of Redmine #2143)
       - returnszero() now correctly sets the class name in this scenario  (Part of
         Redmine #2143):
             "commandfailed" not => returnszero("/bin/nosuchcommand", "noshell");

       - bundles are allowed to be empty (Redmine #2411)
       - Fixed '.' and '-' not being accepted by a commands module. (Redmine #2384)
       - Correct parsing of list variables by a command module. (Redmine #2239)
       - Fixed issue with package management and warn. (Redmine #1831)
       - Fixed JSON crash. (Redmine #2151)
       - Improved error checking when using fgets(). (Redmine #2451)
       - Fixed error message when deleting nonexistent files. (Redmine #2448)
       - Honor warn-only when purging from local directory. (Redmine #2162)
       - Make sure "restart" and "reload" are recognized keywords in packages. (Redmine #2468)
       - Allocate memory dynamically to avoid out-of-buffer or out-of-hash
       - fix edit_xml update of existing attributes  (Redmine #2034)
       - use failsafe policy from compile-time specified workdir (Redmine #1991)
       - ifvarclass checked from classes promises in common bundles
       - do not wait for splaytime when executing only once
       - disable xml editing functionality when libxml2 doesn't provide necessary APIs (Redmine #1937)
       - Out-of-tree builds should work again, fixed a bunch of related bugs.
       - Fixed race condition in file editing. (Redmine #2545)
       - Fixed memory leak in cf-serverd and others (Redmine #1758)

3.4.5   (Bugfix and Stability release)


      - make qualified arrays expand correcty (Redmine #1998, Mantis #1128)

      - correct possible errors in tcdb files when opening

      - avoid possible db corruption when mixing read/write and cursor operations

      - Allow umask value of 002 (Redmine #2496)

3.4.4   (Bugfix and Stability release)


       - prevent possible crash when archiving files (GitHub #316)

       - don't create symlinks to cf-know in update policy

       - don't enable xml support if libxml2 is too old (Redmine #1937)

3.4.3   (Bugfix and Stability release)


       - Don't flood error messages when processes are out of defined range

       - prevent segmentation fault in cf-monitord -x (Redmine #2021)

       - when copying files, use same file mode as source file, rather than 0600 (Redmine #1804)

       - include xpath in messages generated by edit_xml operations (Redmine #2057)

3.4.2   (Bugfix and Stability release)


       - Fixes to policies in masterfiles (see masterfiles/Changelog for details)

       - Fixes for OpenBSD (GitHub #278)

       - Do not canonify values specified in abortbundleclasses/abortclasses (Redmine #1786)

       - Fix build issues on NetBSD, SLES 12.2

       - Improve error message when libxml2 support is not compiled (Redmine #1799)

       - fix potential segmentation fault when trimming network socket data (GitHub #233)

       - fix potential segmentation fault when address-lookups in lastseen db failed (GitHub #233)

       - execute background promise serially when max_children was reached, rather
         than skipping them (GitHub #233)

       - fix segmentation fault in cf-promises when invoked with --reports (Redmine #1931)

       - fix compilation with Sun Studio 12 (Redmine #1901)

       - silence type-pun warning when building on HP-UX (GitHub #287)

3.4.1   (Bugfix and Stability release)

        New feature/behavior:

        - cf-execd terminates agent processes that are not responsive
          for a configurable amount of time (see agent_expireafter in body
          executor control), defaulting to 1 week


        - fix regression of classmatch() failing with hard classes (Redmine #1834)

        - create promise-defined and persistent classes in correct
          namespace (Redmine #1836)

        - several fixes to namespace support

        - fix several crash bugs caused by buffer overflow and race
          conditions in cf-serverd

        - regenerate time classes in cf-execd for each run (Redmine #1838)

        - edit_xml: fix select_xpath implementation and update documentation
          NOTE: code that uses select_xpath_region needs to be changed to

        - edit_xml: make sure that text-modification functions don't overwrite
          child nodes

        - edit_xml: improve error logging


    New features:

    - Added rpmvercmp utility to compare versions of RPM packages for
      accurate sorting of RPM packages for packages promises.

    - Implement network timeout on server side to avoid keeping stale
      connections for hours.

    - XML editing capabilities. See the documentation for edit_xml
      body. Note the new dependency: libxml2.

    - Implement inheritance of local classes by bundles called using
      "usebundle". By default classes are not inherited. See the
      examples/ for an example.

    - Moved from Nova/Enterprise:
      - POSIX ACL support,
      - "outputs" promise type,
      - remote syslog support.

    - packages_default_arch_command hook in packages promises, to
      specify default architecture of the packages on the system.

    - packages_version_less_command / packages_version_equal_command hooks
      in packages promises, to specify external command for native package
      manager versions comparison

    - agent_expireafter in body executor control allows you to set a
      timeout on all cf-agent runs, to enforce a threshold on the
      number of concurrent agents

    - Running in Solaris zone is now detected and classes "zone" and
      "zone_" are created in this case.

    - VirtualBox support added to guest_environment promises.

    - guest_environment promises are supported under OS X.

    - The "depends_on" attribute is now active, for the partal ordering
      of promises. If a promise depends on another (referred by handle)
      it will only be considered if the depends_on list is either kept
      or repaired already.

      ** WARNING: When upgrading, make sure that any existing use
              of depends_on does not make some promises being
              unintentionally ignored. This can happen if you are
              currently referring to non-existent or never-run handles
              in depends_on attributes.

    - methods return values, initial implementation

    - New format for cf-key -s, includes timestamp of last connection

    - cf-promises --parse-tree option to parse policy file and dump it
      in JSON format

    - Namespaces support for bundles and bodies. See the
      examples/unit_namespace*.cf for the usage.

    - Default arguments for bundles. See the examples/

    - Metadata promise type. See the examples/

    New semantics:

    - Methods promises now return the status of promises
      kept within them. If any promise was not kept, the method is not
      kept, else if any promise is repaired, the method was repaired
      else it was kept.
    - Remote variable access in namespaces by $(namespace:bundle.variable)

    Changed functionality:

    - cf-execd -F switch no longer implies 'run once'. New -O/--once
      option is added to achieve this behaviour. This makes cf-execd
      easier to run from systemd, launchd and other supervision


    - Support for the following outdated platforms and corresponding
      classes has been removed. De facto those platforms were
      unsupported for a long time, as CFEngine codebase uses C99
      language features unavailable on old platforms:

       - SunOS 3.x (sun3)
       - SunOS 4.x (sun4)
       - Ultrix (ultrix)
       - DEC OSF/1 AXP (osf)
       - Digital UNIX (digital)
       - Sony NEWS (newsos)
       - 4.3BSD (bsd4_3)
       - IRIX (irix, irix4, irix64)
       - IBM Academic Operating System (aos)
       - BSD/OS / BSDi / BSD/386 (bsdos)
       - NeXTSTEP (nextstep)
       - GNU Hurd (gnu)
       - NEC UX/4800 (ux4800)

    - (Old news) Since 3.3.0 the layout of CFEngine Community packages
      has changed slightly.

      cf-* binaries have been moved to /var/cfengine/bin, due to the
      following reasons:

       - cf-* binaries are linked to libraries installed to
         /var/cfengine/lib, so placing binaries in /usr/local/sbin does not
         increase reliability of the CFEngine,

       - keeping whole CFEngine under single prefix (/var/cfengine)
         makes packaging simpler,

       - it matches the layout of CFEngine Enterprise packages.

       Please adjust your policies (the recommended ways to deal with
       the move are either to adjust $PATH to include /var/cfengine or to
       create symlinks in /usr/local/sbin in case you are relying on
       binaries to be available in $PATH).

    - Workdir location is properly changed if --prefix or --enable-fhs
      options are supplied to configure (Mantis #1195).

    - Added check for broken libmysqlclient implementations (Mantis #1217).

    - Standard library is updated from COPBL repository.

    - cf-know is no longer built in Community releases. The only
      functionality useful in Community, namely the reference manual
      generation, is provided by new compile-time cf-gendoc tool.

    - Filename (for storing filechanges) changed
      from file_change.log -> file_changes.log (in /var/cfengine/state)

      New format for storing file changes introduced:

      N = New file found
      C = Content Changed
      S = Stats changed
      R = File removed

    - Acceptance test suite passes on Mac OS X.

    - Changed some port numbers to replace old services with imap(s)

    - archlinux hard class on Arch Linux.

    - Detect BSD Make and automatically switch to GNU Make during build.


    - cfruncommand for cf-execd is an arbitrary shell command now (Mantis #1268).
    - Fixed broken "daily" splayclasses (Mantis #1307).
    - Allow filenames up to 4096 bytes in network transfers (Redmine #1199).
    - Fix stale state preserved during cf-serverd reload (Redmine #1487).
    - Free disk space calculation is fixed (Mantis #1120).
    - Numerous portability bugfixes (especially OpenBSD, Solaris, AIX-related).
    - Compatibility fixes for AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (Mantis #1185, Mantis #1177, Mantis #1109).
    - Fixed broken socklen_t configure check under OpenBSD (Mantis #1168).
    - Fixed hang in cf-promises under OpenBSD (Mantis #1113).
    - Fixed endless loop in evaluating "$()" construct (Mantis #1023).
    - Fixed check for old PCRE versions (Mantis #1262).
    - Fixed insertion of multi-line blocks at the start of file (Mantis #809).
    - Fixed numerous memory leaks.
    - Fixes for metadata that were not resolvable
    - Fixes for namespaces that would not support metadata and variable expansion
    - Point-to-point network interfaces are detected and reported by CFEngine (Mantis #1246)
    - Partial non-GNU userspace support in acceptance testsuite (Mantis #1255)

    Full list of issues fixed is available on (old bug tracker)
    and (new bug tracker)

3.3.9   (Bugfix and Stability release)


    - Do not lose hard classes in cf-serverd during policy reload
      (Mantis #1218).
    - Implement receive network timeout in cf-serverd. Prevents
      overloading cf-serverd with stale connections.

3.3.8   (Bugfix and Stability release)

    Versions 3.3.6, 3.3.7 were internal and weren't released.


    - Propery set sys.domain variable if hostname is fully-qualified.
    - Fixed several small memory leaks.
    - Make network timeout for network reads configurable. Previously
      it was hardcoded to be 30 seconds, which was not enough for
      cf-runagent invoking cf-agent on big policies (Mantis #1028).

3.3.5   (Bugfix and Stability release)


    - Fixed cf-execd memory leak on hosts with cf-monitord running.
    - Robustify against wrongly-sized entires in embedded databases.

    Standard library:

    - Bugfixes from upstream COPBL repository.
    - standard_services bundle from upstream COPBL repository.

3.3.4   (Bugfix and Stability release)

    Evaluation of policies:

    - Fix wrong classes set after installation of several packages
      using packages promises (Mantis #829).
    - Fix segfault using edit_template on existing file (Mantis #1155).


    - Fix memory leak during re-read of network interfaces'
      information in cf-execd/cf-serverd.

3.3.3   (Bugfix and Stability release)

    Evaluation of policies:

    - Zero-length files are valid for readfile() and similar functions
      (Mantis #1136).
    - Unchoke agent in case it encounters symlinks in form ./foo
      (Similar to Mantis #1117).


    - Fix generation of reference manual on machines with umask more
      relaxed than 022.
    - Use statvfs(3) on OpenBSD to obtain filesystem information
      (Mantis #1135).

3.3.2   (Bugfix and Stability release)

    Evaluation of policies:

    - Do not segfault if file copy was interrupted due to network
      connectivity or server going away (Mantis #1089).
    - Do not segfault if log_failed attribute is present in body, but
      log_kept is not (Mantis #1107).
    - Do not mangle relative paths in symlinks during file copy
      Previously symlink a -> b was mangled to a -> ./b.
      (Mantis #1117)
    - Properly compare 1.0 and 1.0.1 in packages promises. Previously
      only versions with equal amount of "segments" were comparable
      (Mantis #890, #1066).

    Base policy:

    - Properly set permissions on files for /var/cfengine/lib on HP-UX
      (Mantis #1114).
    - Standard library ( is synced with COPBL


    - Do not create huge file in case corrupted TokyoCabinet database
      is detected (Mantis #1106).
    - Fix file descriptor leak on error paths, may have caused crashes
      of cf-execd and cf-serverd (Issue #1096).
    - Fix intermittent segfault in cf-execd (Mantis #1116).
    - Impose an upper limit on amount of listening sockets reported by
      cf-monitord. Huge amounts of listening sockets caused cf-agent to
      segfault on next run (Mantis #1098).
    - Add missing function prototypes caused errors during compilation
      on HP-UX (Mantis #1109).
    - Fix compilation on Solaris 11 (Mantis #1091).

3.3.1   (Bugfix and Stability release)

    Evaluation of policies:

    - Do not cut off name of bundle in variables interpolation (Mantis #975).
    - Do not segfault in function evaluation guarded by ifvaclass clause (Mantis #1084, #864).
    - Do not segfault if "classes" promise does not declare any value to be evaluated (Mantis #1074).
    - Do not segfault in database promises if there is no
        database_operation provided (Mantis #1046).

    Built-in functions:

    - Fix countclassesmatching() function which was misbehaving trying
        to match classes starting with alphanumeric symbol (Mantis #1073).
    - Fix diskfree() to return kilobytes, as described in documentation (Mantis #980, #955).
    - Fix hostsseen() function to avoid treating all hosts as not
        being seen since 1970 (Mantis #886).
    - Do not output misleading error message if readtcp() is unable to connect (Mantis #1085).

    Command-line interface:

    - -d option previously reqired an argument, though help message disagreed (Mantis #1053).
    - Disable --parse-tree option, not ready for the release (Mantis #1063).
    - Acept -h as a --help option.
    - Ensure that cf-execd might be started right after being shut down.


    - Plug file descriptor leak after failed file copy (Mantis #990).
    - Fix unsafe admit rules in default (Mantis #1040).
    - Fix splaytime to match documentation: it is specified in minutes, not seconds (Mantis #1099).


    - Fix owner/group of initscript and profile.d snippet in RPM builds (Mantis #1061, #1058).
    - Fix location of libvirt socket CFEngine uses to connect to libvirtd (Mantis #1072).
    - Install CoreBase to /var/cfengine/masterfiles during installation (Mantis #1075).
    - Do not leave old cf-twin around after upgrade (Mantis #1068)
    - Do not leave rcS.d symlinks after purging .deb package (Mantis #1092).


    New promise types:
    - Guest environments promises, which allow to manipulate virtual
      machines using libvirt.
    - Database promises, which allow to maintain schema of MySQL and
      PostgreSQL databases. Database promises are in "technical preview"
      status: this promise type is subject to change in future.
    - Services promises for Unix, allows abstraction of details
      on managing any service

    New built-in functions:
    - dirname() to complement lastnode()
    - lsdir()
    - maplist() to apply functions over lists

    New features:
    - Allow defining arrays from modules.
    - Allow both `process_stop' and `signals' constraints in
      `processes' promises at the same time.
    - cf-promises --gcc-brief-format option to output warnings and
      errors in gcc-compatible syntax which to ease use "go to next
      error" feature of text editors.
    - Iteration over lists is now allowed for qualified (non-local) lists.

    New built-in variables and classes (Linux):
    - Number of CPUs: $(sys.cpus), 1_cpu, 2_cpus etc

    New built-in variables and classes (Unices):
    - $(sys.last_policy_update) - timestamp when last policy change was seen by host
    - $(sys.hardware_addresses) - list of MAC adresses
    - $(sys.ip_addresses) - list of IP addresses
    - $(sys.interfaces) - list of network interfaces
    - $(sys.hardware_mac[$iface]) - MAC address for network interface
    - mac_:: - discovered MAC addresses


    - Major cleanup of database handling code. Should radically decrease
      amount of database issues experienced under heavy load.

      *WARNING*: Berkeley DB and SQLite backends are *removed*, use
      Tokyo Cabinet or QDBM instead. Both Tokyo Cabinet and QDBM are
      faster than Berkeley DB in typical CFEngine workloads.

      Tokyo Cabinet requires C99 environment, so it should be
      available on every contemporary operating system.

      For the older systems QDBM, which relies only on C89, is a
      better replacement, and deemed to be as portable, as Berkeley DB.

    - Change of lastseen database schema. Should radically decrease
      I/O contention on lasteen database.

    - Automatic reload of policies by cf-execd.
    - Documentation is generated during build, PDF and HTML files are
      retired from repository.
    - Rarely used feature retired: peer connectivity intermittency calculation.
    - Memory and CPU usage improvements.
    - Testsuite now uses 'make check' convention and does not need root
      privileges anymore.
    - cf_promises_validated now filled with timestamp, allows digest-copy
      for policy instead of mtime copy which is safer when clocks are unsynchronised
    - The bundled policy now has trustkey=false to avoid IP spoofing
      attacks in default policy
    - See the full list of bugfixes at

3.2.4   (Bugfix and Stability release)

        Fixed failure in network transfer in case of misbehaving peer

        A few tiny memory leaks on error paths fixed

3.2.3   (Bugfix and Stability release)

        A few tiny memory leaks fixed

        Improved performance of cf-serverd under heavy load with
        TokyoCabinet database

        Full list of issues fixed is available on

3.2.2   (Bugfix and Stability release)

        Enabled compilation in "large files" mode under AIX

        Alleviated problem with broken file transfers over unstable
        Internet links.

        Full list of issues fixed is available on

3.2.1   (Bugfix and Stability release)

        Fixed compilation under HP-UX and Solaris

        Enabled compilation using HP ANSI C compiler

        Full list of issues fixed is available on

    New bootstrap method with single-command bootstrapping:
    - cf-agent --bootstrap --policy-server 123.456.789.123
    - Associated policy template files are added, partially maintained
      by CFEngine

    Bug fixes for file-editing, package versioning, and embedded
    database corruption (We recommend using TokyoCabinet instead of
    BerkeleyDB if building from source).

    Improved upgrade path for Nova.

    Patches for improved run-agent concurrency

    Reorganization of documentation and community resources

    100% on regression test suite on 3 operating systems
    (Ubuntu, Debian, SuSE on x86-64 hardware)

    Support for multiple release environments

    package_policy update and addupdate now check if user-supplied
    version is larger than currently installed - updates only if so

    Help text of cf-report -r corrected - a list of key hashes is
    required, not ip addresses.

    New Emacs mode for CFEngine policy files (thanks to Ted Zlatanov!)

    Warnings are on edit_line changes can now give greater degree of information
    without spamming promise logs

    Class expressions parser accepts '||' as an alias for '|' again.

    Invalidation of package list cache on installation/removal of

    New option cf-key -r to remove host key by IP or hostname.

    Added detection of network interfaces which belong to BSD jails.

    Improve robustness of multi-threaded code, in particular fix
    problems with spurious access denials in server and losing of
    authentication rules after policy reload.

    cf-promises accepts option -b matching cf-agent, which causes it
    to do not complain about missing bundlesequence.

    New functions and(), not(), or() and concat() to ease use of
    ifvarclass() clause.

    Full list of issues fixed is available on

    New class parser, '||' is no longer allowed in expressions (use '|').

    Class setting in the promise types insert_lines, delete_lines,
    replace_patterns, field_edits, vars, classes is restored.

    suspiciousnames implemented.

    New function getvalues().

    New functions parse{read,int,string}array to match read{read,int,string}array.

    Testsuite added to check for core functionality.

    Syslog prefix is fixed to say 'cf3' instead of 'community'.

3.1.4   (Bugfix and Stability release)

    Some urgent patches to 3.1.3.
    Class validation parse bug fixed.
    Global zone handling error for solaris fixed.
    Package architectures handled correctly (bug #456).
    Reading and writing of key name "" eliminated (bug #442, #453).
    cf-serverd crash because of race condition on SERVER_KEYSEEN fixed.
    Lock purging to avoid remnant complexity explosion (bug #430).
    Some copyright notices added that got lost.

3.1.3   (Stability release)

    Major memory leaks in cf-monitord, cf-execd, cf-serverd fixed (bug #427).
    The daemons now show no growth even with very complex policies.

    cf-serverd crash due to race condition in DeleteScope() fixed (bug #406).

    Added 30 second timeout on recv() on Linux.

    package_noverify_returncode implemented (bug #256).

    A flexible mechanism for setting classes based on return codes of
    commands has been introduced. Allows for setting promise kept,
    repaired or failed based on any return codes. This is currently
    implemented for commands-promises, package-manager commands and
    transformer in files. In classes body, see attributes
    kept_returncodes, repaired_returncodes, failed_returncodes (bug
    #248, #329).

    New function ip2host - reverse DNS lookup (bug #146).

3.1.2   (Scalability/efficiency release)

    Big efficiency improvements by caching output from
    cf-promises. Can also be used for much more efficient policy
    deployment (only pull if changed).

    Caching state of ps command for greater efficiency. Reloaded for each bundle.

    Index class lookup improves efficiency of class evaluation for huge configurations.

        Fixed issue where certain promiser strings got corrupted.

    Minor memory access issues fixed.

    Iterator bug introduced in 3.1.0 fixed

3.1.1   (Bugfix release)

    Memory leaks in server tracked down and fixed.
    List expansion bug (one list items not executed) fixed.
    Security issue introduced by change of runcommand shell policy fixed. If users defined a runcommand for cf-runagent/cf-serverd communication, possible to execute commands.
    cf-key -s command for showing key hash/IP address identity pairs

    Change in storage of public keys. Cfengine now hashes the public key and uses this
    as the keyname. Keys will be converted automatically.

    The old dynamic addresses lists are deprecated.
    Caching of dns and key information for greater server speed.
    Change in last-seen format reflects the public key usage.

    New package policy addupdate - installs package if not there and
    updates it otherwise.

    Support for package_changes => "bulk" in file repository as well.

    New special function readstringarrayidx, similar to readstringarray,
    but uses integer indices. Very useful if first row elements are
    not good identifiers (e.g. contains spaces, non-unique, etc.).

    Change two log formats to use time() instead of date()
    - filechanges
    - total compliance

    Change from using md5 to sha256 as default digest for commercial version,
    community retains md5 for compat.

    Commands not returning 0 in commands-promises are flagged
    as repair_failed.

    Adjustable timeout on connect(). Defaults to 10 seconds, adjustable
    with default_timeout in agent control.

    Redesign of the knowledge map infrastructure.

    Now possible to use variables to call methods, e.g


      "name $(list)" usebundle => $(list)("abc");

    See reference manual notes

    Changes to normal ordering to optimize execution.

    Increased stability by always initializing Attribute and Promise

    When running cf-promises in dry-run mode (-n), the user does not need
    to put binaries in WORKDIR/bin. For example, non-privileged users can verify root

    Source control revision added in version string if run in verbose mode
    (e.g. "cf-promises -vV"). This needs some refining, uses revision of a header now.

    New semantics in return values of list functions. Null values are now allowed
    and there is no iteration over empty lists. The value "cf_null" is reserved for
    use as a null iterator.

        Showing paths allowed/denied access to when cf-serverd is run in verbose mode.
    Bug in server fixed for dynamic addresses.
    File handle closure bugfix - too many open databases.
    Seg fault in mount files fix.
    Twin used in cf-execd without checking.
    Check_root set wrong directory permissions at source not destination.
    Error message degraded in body definition.
    Undefined body not warned as error.
    Various build enahncements.
    Package_list_update called only once per manager, and fixed crash.
    Version number bug in packages.

        Encryption problems fixed - client key buffer was uninitialized.

        Classes-promisers are now automatically canonified when class
    strings are defined, to simplifying the use of variables in classes.

        New scalars sys.cf_version and sys.nova_version that hold Cfengine version information.

        Attribute package_delete_convention added, to allow customizable
    package name in delete command during update.

    package_list_update_ifelapsed limit added.

    Private variable $(firstrepo) is available in package_name_convention
        and package_delete_convention in order to expand the full path to
    a package, which is required by some managers.

    Some of the threading code is rewritten and made more robust. This includes
    synchronizing access to the lastseen database from the server.

        Bad initialization of BSD flags fixed
    Multiple variable expansion issues in control fixed for server and agent
    Allow ignore_missing_bundles to affect methods: bundles too
    Run agent trust dialogue fixed

    Bug in CPU monitoring, increasing time scale caused linear decay
    of CPU measurement.

    Bug in Setuid log storage, fix.

    Hooks added for new Nova virtualization promises.

    Multithreading mutex failed to collide during cfservd leading to dropped authentication under heavy load.

    Class cancellation in promises to create better class feedback,
    allows emulation of switch/case semantics etc

    Value of SA measurement promises

    Special function getenv() which returns the contents of an
    environment variable (on all platforms).
    New function translatepath for generic Windows
    New function escape() to escape literals as regular expressions (like SQL)
        New function host2ip for caching IP address lookup
    New function regextract for setting variables with backreferences

    New variables for the components $(sys.cf_agent), $(sys.cf_know) etc
    pointing to the binaries.

    More robust integrated database implementation; closing all
    handles when receiving signals, self-healing on corruption.

    Package installation on localhost without a manager like yum completed,
    multiple repositories searched, and universal methods.

    Numerous bugfixes

    sha256 .. new hashes in openssl included in syntax tree.

    End of line autocropping in readfile (hopefully intelligent)

    hashmatch function incorrectly implemented - old debugging code left behind. Fix.

    sys.crontab variable

    Unknown user is now interpretated as "same user", so that we give cfengine a chance to

    Unregistered addresses no longer report "(Non registered IP)", but return as the address
    itself when doing reverse lookups.

    IMPORTANT: Change in normal ordering of editing. replace comes
    after insert lines Much testing and minor bug fixing

    Memory leaks fixed
    Many hooks added for Nova enterprise extensions.

        promise_output reports now placed in WORKDIR/reports directory

    Initialization correction and self-correx in monitord

    Many new body constraints added.

    Code readied for enterprise version Nova.

    -b option can override the bundlesequence (must not contain parameters yet)

    collapse_destination_dir option added to copy so that files can be
    aggregated from subdirectories into a single destination.

    Preparation for release:           x          x                       x               x                       x                    x      x                x                   x                  x           x             x             x                     x            x                x      x                   x            x            x                      x                 x                 x                  x            x               x               x  x                    x         x        x       x         x   x       x       x               x         x                       x                x                 x                     x          x                x                    x                  x     x                x  x                 x               x                x                    x                x               x                    x   x     x               x                      x               x                 x                x                 x                  x                   x                    x                     x                    x               x                   x                x                 x             x                  x                      x                   x            x x               x                     x              x                    x           x                  x       x               x               x                  x               x              x               x               x            x             x                  x          x                     x                   x              x         x          x        x                  x                   x                  x                  x                   x                   x          x                    x              x              x               x               x             x             x               x     x        x         x               x                       x                   x                    x               x                    x                  x            x                 x          x                x                  x                      x                x                 x

    First standalone release, independent of cfengine 2
    Purge old definitions and check consistency.

    NB: changed search_mode to be a list of matching values

    Reporting rationalized in cf-promises with -r only to avoid
    leaving output files everywhere.

    Hooks added for upcoming commercial additions to cfengine.

    Added classify() and hostinnetgroup() functions
    Added additional change management options for change detection

    Package management added - generic mechanisms.

    Limits on backgrounding added to avoid resource contention during cfengine runs.
    Image type added to cf-know.

    New classes for quartly shifts: Morning,Afternoon,Evening,Night

    Bug fixes in editfiles - line insertion for multiple line objects

    Change the name of the variables and context from the monitord for
    better separation of data, and shorter names. sys -> mon
    average -> av, stddev -> dev

    canonical name for windows changed from "nt" to "windows", also version names
    added "vista","xp" etc..

    License notices updated for dual license editions.

    First release of cfengine 3. Known omissions:
    - no support for ACLs
    - no support for packages
    - no support for interface configuration
    These will be added in the next release.