CFEngine can interact with commonly used database servers to keep promises about the structure and content of data within them.

There are two main cases of database management to address: small embedded databases and large centralized databases.

Databases are often centralized entities that have a single point of management. While large monolithic database can be more easily managed with other tools, CFEngine can still monitor changes and discrepancies. In addition, CFEngine can also manage smaller embedded databases that are distributed in nature, whether they are SQL, registry or future types.

For example, creating 100 new databases for test purposes is a task for CFEngine; but adding a new item to an important production database is not a recommended task for CFEngine.

There are three kinds of database supported by CFEngine:

  • LDAP - The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

    A hierarchical network database primarily for reading simple schema (Only CFEngine Enterprise).

  • SQL - Structured Query Language

    A number of relational databases (currently supported: MySQL, Postgres for reading and writing complex data.

    WARNING: Neither MySQL/MariaDB or PostgreSQL support is built into the default binaries. If you wish to use this functionality you must compile the agent with support.

  • Registry - Microsoft Registry

    An embedded database for interfacing with system values in Microsoft Windows (Only CFEngine Enterprise)

In addition, CFEngine uses a variety of embedded databases for its own internals.

Embedded databases are directly part of the system and promises can be made directly. However, databases running through a server process (either on the same host or on a different host) are independent agents and CFEngine cannot make promises on their behalf, unless they promise (grant) permission for CFEngine to make the changes. Thus the pre-requisite for making SQL database promises is to grant a point of access on the server.

databases:

"database/subkey or table"

   database_operation => "create/delete/drop",
   database_type => "sql/ms_registry",
   database_columns => {
                       "name,type,size",
                       "name,type",
                       },

   database_server => body;

body database_server name
{
  db_server_owner => "account name";
  db_server_password => "password";
  db_server_host => "hostname or omit for localhost";
  db_server_type => "mysql/posgres";
  db_server_connection_db => "database we can connect to";
}
body common control
{
bundlesequence => { "databases" };
}

bundle agent databases

{
#commands:

#  "/usr/bin/createdb cf_topic_maps",

#        contain => as_user("mysql");

databases:

  "cf_topic_maps/topics"

    database_operation => "create",
    database_type => "sql",
    database_columns => {
                        "topic_name,varchar,256",
                        "topic_comment,varchar,1024",
                        "topic_id,varchar,256",
                        "topic_type,varchar,256",
                        "topic_extra,varchar,26"
                        },

    database_server => myserver;



}

################################################

body database_server myserver
{
any::
 db_server_owner => "postgres";
 db_server_password => "";
 db_server_host => "localhost";
 db_server_type => "postgres";
 db_server_connection_db => "postgres";
none::
 db_server_owner => "root";
 db_server_password => "";
 db_server_host => "localhost";
 db_server_type => "mysql";
 db_server_connection_db => "mysql";
}

body contain as_user(x)
{
exec_owner => "$(x)";
}

The promiser in database promises is a concatenation of the database name and underlying tables. This presents a simple hierarchical model that looks like a file-system. This is the normal structure within the Windows registry for instance. Entity-relation databases do not normally present tables in this way, but no harm is done in representing them as a hierarchy of depth 1.


Attributes

Common Attributes

Common attributes are available to all promise types. Full details for common attributes can be found in the Common Promise Attributes section of the Promise Types page. The common attributes are as follows:

action

classes

comment

depends_on

handle

if

meta

with


database_server

Type: body database_server

See also: Common Body Attributes

db_server_owner

Description: The db_server_owner string represents the user name for a database connection.

Type: string

Allowed input range: (arbitrary string)

Example:

db_server_owner => "mark";

db_server_password

Description: The db_server_password string represents the clear text password for a database connection.

Type: string

Allowed input range: (arbitrary string)

Example:

db_server_password => "xyz.1234";

db_server_host

Description: The db_server_host string represents the hostname or address for a database connection.

A blank value is equal to localhost.

Type: string

Allowed input range: (arbitrary string)

Example: cf3 db_server_host => "sqlserv.example.org";

db_server_type

Description: The db_server_type string represents the type of database server being used.

Type: (menu option)

Allowed input range:

postgres
mysql

Default value: none

Example:

db_server_type => "postgres";

db_server_connection_db

Description: The db_server_connection_db string is the name of an existing database to connect to in order to create/manage other databases.

In order to create a database on a database server (all of which practice voluntary cooperation), one has to be able to connect to the server. However, without an existing database this is not allowed. Thus, database servers provide a default database that can be connected to in order to thereafter create new databases. These are called postgres and mysql for their respective database servers.

Type: string

Allowed input range: (arbitrary string)

Example:

body database_server myserver(x)
{
db_server_owner => "$(x)";
db_server_password => "";
db_server_host => "localhost";
db_server_type => "$(mysql)";
db_server_connection_db => "$(x)";
}

where x is currently mysql or postgres.

database_type

Description: The database_type menu option is a type of database that is to be manipulated.

Type: (menu option)

Allowed input range:

sql
ms_registry

Default value: none

Example:

database_type => "ms_registry";

database_operation

Description: The database_operation menu option represents the nature of the promise.

Type: (menu option)

Allowed input range:

create
delete
drop
cache
verify
restore

Example:

database_operation => "create";

database_columns

Description: A database_columns slist defines column definitions to be promised by SQL databases.

Columns are a list of tuplets (Name,type,size). Array items are triplets, and fixed size data elements are doublets.

Type: slist

Allowed input range: .*

Example:

"cf_topic_maps/topics"

  database_operation => "create",
  database_type => "sql",
  database_columns => {
                      "topic_name,varchar,256",
                      "topic_comment,varchar,1024",
                      "topic_id,varchar,256",
                      "topic_type,varchar,256",
                      "topic_extra,varchar,26"
                      },

  database_server => myserver;

database_rows

Description: database_rows is an ordered list of row values to be promised by SQL databases.

This constraint is used only in adding data to database columns. Rows are considered to be instances of individual columns.

Type: slist

Allowed input range: .*,.*

Example:

bundle agent databases
{
databases:

 windows::

  # Regsitry has (value,data) pairs in "keys" which are directories

  "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\CFEngine AS\CFEngine"

    database_operation => "create",
    database_rows => { "value1,REG_SZ,new value 1", "value2,REG_DWORD,12345"} ,
    database_type     => "ms_registry";
}

Notes:

In the case of the system registry on Windows, the rows represent data on data-value pairs. The currently supported types (the middle field) for the Windows registry are REG_SZ (string), REG_EXPAND_SZ (expandable string) and REG_DWORD (double word).

If a column value has a comma you can escape the comma with backslash \,.

bundle agent main
# @brief Configure system variables for hosts that should not use a proxy
{

  databases:
    windows::
      "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SYSTEM\\CurrentControlSet\\Control\\Session Manager\\Environment"
        database_operation => "create",
        database_rows =>
        {
          "NO_PROXY,REG_SZ,localhost\,127.0.0.1\,localaddress\,.localdomain\,169.254.169.254\,.cfengine.com"
        },
        database_type => "ms_registry";
}

registry_exclude

Description: An registry_exclude slist contains regular expressions to ignore in key/value verification.

During recursive Windows registry scanning, this option allows us to ignore keys of values matching a list of regular expressions. Some values in the registry are ephemeral and some should not be considered. This provides a convenient way of avoiding names. It is analogous to exclude_dirs for files.

Type: slist

Allowed input range: (arbitrary string)

Example:

databases:

 "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE"

    database_operation => "cache",

    registry_exclude => { ".*Windows.*CurrentVersion.*",
                          ".*Touchpad.*",
                          ".*Capabilities.FileAssociations.*",
                          ".*Rfc1766.*" ,
                          ".*Synaptics.SynTP.*",
                          ".*SupportedDevices.*8086",
                          ".*Microsoft.*ErrorThresholds"
                        },

    database_type     => "ms_registry";