1. Add the policy contents (also can be downloaded from file_compare_test.cf) to a new file, such as /var/cfengine/masterfiles/file_test.cf.
  2. Run the following commands as root on the command line:

    export AOUT_BIN="a.out"
    export GCC_BIN="/usr/bin/gcc"
    export RM_BIN="/bin/rm"
    export WORK_DIR=$HOME
    export CFE_FILE1="test_plain_1.txt"
    export CFE_FILE2="test_plain_2.txt"
    
    /var/cfengine/bin/cf-agent /var/cfengine/masterfiles/file_test.cf --bundlesequence robot,global_vars,packages,create_aout_source_file,create_aout,test_delete,do_files_exist_1,create_file_1,outer_bundle_1,copy_a_file,do_files_exist_2,list_file_1,stat,outer_bundle_2,list_file_2
    

Here is the order in which bundles are called in the command line above (some other support bundles are contained within file_test.cf but are not included here):

  1. robot - demonstrates use of reports.
  2. global_vars - sets up some global variables for later use.
  3. packages - installs packages that will be used later on.
  4. create_aout_source_file - creates a source file.
  5. create_aout - compiles the source file.
  6. test_delete - deletes a file.
  7. do_files_exist_1 - checks the existence of files.
  8. create_file_1 - creates a file.
  9. outer_bundle_1 - adds text to a file.
  10. copy_a_file - copies the file.
  11. do_files_exist_2 - checks the existence of both files.
  12. list_file_1 - shows the contents of each file.
  13. stat - uses the stat command and the aout application to compare modified times of both files.
  14. outer_bundle_2 - modifies the contents of the second file.
  15. list_file_2 - shows the contents of both files and uses CFEngine functionality to compare the modified time for each file.

robot

Demonstrates use of reports, using an ascii art representation of the CFEngine robot.

global_vars

Sets up some global variables that are used frequently by other bundles.

bundle common global_vars
{
    vars:

      "gccexec" string => getenv("GCC_BIN",255);
      "rmexec" string => getenv("RM_BIN",255);

      "aoutbin" string => getenv("AOUT_BIN",255);
      "workdir" string => getenv("WORK_DIR",255);

      "aoutexec" string => "$(workdir)/$(aoutbin)";

      "file1name" string => getenv("CFE_FILE1",255);
      "file2name" string => getenv("CFE_FILE2",255);

      "file1" string => "$(workdir)/$(file1name)";
      "file2" string => "$(workdir)/$(file2name)";

    classes:
      "gclass" expression => "any";

}

packages

Ensures that the gcc package is installed, for later use by the create_aout bundle.

    bundle agent packages
    {
      vars:

          "match_package" slist => {
            "gcc"
          };

      packages:
          "$(match_package)"
          package_policy => "add",
          package_method => yum;

      reports:

        gclass::
            "Package gcc installed";
            "*********************************";

    }

create_aout_source_file

Creates the c source file that will generate a binary application in create_aout.

bundle agent create_aout_source_file
{

  # This bundle creates the source file that will be compiled in bundle agent create_aout.
  # See that bunlde's comments for more information.

  vars:

    # An slist is used here instead of a straight forward string because it doesn't seem possible to create
    # line endings using \n when using a string to insert text into a file.

    "c" slist => {"#include <stdlib.h>","#include <stdio.h>","#include <sys/stat.h>","#include <string.h>","void main()","{char file1[255];strcpy(file1,\"$(global_vars.file1)\");char file2[255];strcpy(file2,\"$(global_vars.file2)\");struct stat time1;int i = lstat(file1, &time1);struct stat time2;int j = lstat(file2, &time2);if (time1.st_mtime < time2.st_mtime){printf(\"Newer\");}else{if(time1.st_mtim.tv_nsec < time2.st_mtim.tv_nsec){printf(\"Newer\");}else{printf(\"Not newer\");}}}"};

  files:
      "$(global_vars.workdir)/a.c"
      perms => system,
      create => "true",
      edit_line => Insert("@(c)");

  reports:
    "The source file $(global_vars.workdir)/a.c has been created. It will be used to compile the binary a.out, which will provide more accurate file stats to compare two files than the built in CFEngine functionality for comparing file stats, including modification time. This information will be used to determine of the second of the two files being compared is newer or not.";
    "*********************************";

}

create_aout

This bundle creates a binary application from the source in create_aout_source_file that uses the stat library to compare two files, determine if the modified times are different, nd whether the second file is newer than the first.

The difference between this application and using CFEngine's built in support for getting file stats is that normally the accuracy is only to the second of the modified file time but in order to better compare two files requires parts of a second as well. The stat library provides the extra support for retrieving the additional information required.

bundle agent create_aout
{

    classes:

    "doesfileacexist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.workdir)/a.c");
    "doesaoutexist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.aoutbin)");

  vars:

    # Removes any previous binary
    "rmaout" string => execresult("$(global_vars.rmexec) $(global_vars.aoutexec)","noshell");

    doesfileacexist::
    "compilestr" string => "$(global_vars.gccexec) $(global_vars.workdir)/a.c -o $(global_vars.aoutexec)";
    "gccaout" string => execresult("$(compilestr)","noshell");

  reports:
    doesfileacexist::
      "gcc output: $(gccaout)";
      "Creating aout using $(compilestr)";
    !doesfileacexist::
      "Cannot compile a.out, $(global_vars.workdir)/a.c does not exist.";
    doesaoutexist::
      "The binary application aout has been compiled from the source in the create_aout_source_file bundle. It uses the stat library to compare two files, determine if the modified times are different, and whether the second file is newer than the first. The difference between this application and using CFEngine's built in support for getting file stats (e.g. filestat, isnewerthan), which provides file modification time accurate to a second. However, in order to better compare two files might sometimes require parts of a second as well. The stat library provides the extra support for retrieving the additional information required to get better accuracy (down to parts of a second), and is utilized by the binary application a.out that is compiled within the create_aout bundle.";
      "*********************************";

}

test_delete

Deletes any previous copy of the test files used in the example.

bundle agent test_delete
{

  files:
      "$(global_vars.file1)"
      delete => tidy;
}

do_files_exist_1

Verifies whether the test files exist or not.

bundle agent do_files_exist_1

{

  classes:

    "doesfile1exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file1)");
    "doesfile2exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file2)");

  methods:

    doesfile1exist::

    "any" usebundle => delete_file("$(global_vars.file1)");
    doesfile2exist::
    "any" usebundle => delete_file("$(global_vars.file2)");
  reports:

    !doesfile1exist::
      "$(global_vars.file1) does not exist.";
    doesfile1exist::
      "$(global_vars.file1) did exist. Call to delete it was made.";

    !doesfile2exist::
      "$(global_vars.file2) does not exist.";
    doesfile2exist::
      "$(global_vars.file2) did exist. Call to delete it was made.";

}

create_file_1

Creates the first test file, as an empty file.

bundle agent create_file_1
{

  files:
      "$(global_vars.file1)"
      perms => system,
      create => "true";

  reports:
    "$(global_vars.file1) has been created";
}

outer_bundle_1

Adds some text to the first test file.

bundle agent outer_bundle_1
{
    files:

       "$(global_vars.file1)"
       create    => "false",
       edit_line => inner_bundle_1;
}

copy_a_file

Makes a copy of the test file.

bundle agent copy_a_file
{
  files:

      "$(global_vars.file2)"
      copy_from => local_cp("$(global_vars.file1)");

  reports:
     "$(global_vars.file1) has been copied to $(global_vars.file2)";
}

do_files_exist_2

Verifies that both test files exist.

bundle agent do_files_exist_2
{
    methods:

    "any" usebundle => does_file_exist($(global_vars.file1));
    "any" usebundle => does_file_exist($(global_vars.file2));
}

list_file_1

Reports the contents of each test file.

bundle agent list_file_1
{

  methods:
    "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file1));
    "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file2));
  reports:
    "*********************************";

}

exec_aout

bundle agent exec_aout
{

  classes:
    "doesaoutexist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.aoutbin)");

  vars:
    doesaoutexist::
    "aout" string => execresult("$(global_vars.aoutexec)","noshell");

  reports:
    doesaoutexist::
    "*********************************";
    "$(global_vars.aoutbin) determined that $(global_vars.file2) is $(aout) than $(global_vars.file1)";
    "*********************************";
    !doesaoutexist::
    "Executable $(global_vars.aoutbin) does not exist.";

}

stat

Compares the modified time of each test file using the binary application compiled in create_aout to see if it is newer.

bundle agent stat
{

  classes:

    "doesfile1exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file1)");
    "doesfile2exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file2)");

  vars:

    doesfile1exist::

    "file1" string => "$(global_vars.file1)";
    "file2" string => "$(global_vars.file2)";

    "file1_stat" string => execresult("/usr/bin/stat -c \"%y\" $(file1)","noshell");
    "file1_split1" slist => string_split($(file1_stat)," ",3);
    "file1_split2" string => nth("file1_split1",1);
    "file1_split3" slist => string_split($(file1_split2),"\.",3);
    "file1_split4" string => nth("file1_split3",1);

    "file2_stat" string => execresult("/usr/bin/stat -c \"%y\" $(file2)","noshell");
    "file2_split1" slist => string_split($(file2_stat)," ",3);
    "file2_split2" string => nth("file2_split1",1);
    "file2_split3" slist => string_split($(file2_split2),"\.",3);
    "file2_split4" string => nth("file2_split3",1);

  methods:

      "any" usebundle => exec_aout();

  reports:
    doesfile1exist::
      "Parts of a second extracted extracted from stat for $(file1): $(file1_split4). Full stat output for $(file1): $(file1_stat)";
      "Parts of a second extracted extracted from stat for $(file2): $(file2_split4). Full stat output for $(file2): $(file2_stat)";
      "Using the binary Linux application stat to compare two files can help determine if the modified times between two files are different. The difference between the stat application using its additional flags and using CFEngine's built in support for getting and comparing file stats (e.g. filestat, isnewerthan) is that normally the accuracy is only to the second of the file's modified time. In order to better compare two files requires parts of a second as well, which the stat command can provide with some additional flags. Unfortunately the information must be extracted from the middle of a string, which is what the stat bundle accomplishes using the string_split and nth functions.";
      "*********************************";
    !doesfile1exist::
      "stat: $(global_vars.file1) and probably $(global_vars.file2) do not exist.";

}

outer_bundle_2

Modifies the text in the second file.

bundle agent outer_bundle_2
{
    files:

       "$(global_vars.file2)"
       create    => "false",
       edit_line => inner_bundle_2;
}

list_file_2

Uses filestat and isnewerthan to compare the two test files to see if the second one is newer. Sometimes the modifications already performed, such as copy and modifying text, happen too quickly and filestat and isnewerthan may both report that the second test file is not newer than the first, while the more accurate stat based checks in the stat bundle (see step 12) will recognize the difference.

bundle agent list_file_2
{

  methods:

      "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file1));
      "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file2));

  classes:

      "ok" expression => isgreaterthan(filestat("$(global_vars.file2)","mtime"),filestat("$(global_vars.file1)","mtime"));
      "newer" expression => isnewerthan("$(global_vars.file2)","$(global_vars.file1)");

  reports:
    "*********************************";
      ok::
         "Using isgreaterthan+filestat determined that $(global_vars.file2) was modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";

      !ok::
         "Using isgreaterthan+filestat determined that $(global_vars.file2) was not modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";
      newer::
         "Using isnewerthan determined that $(global_vars.file2) was modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";
      !newer::
         "Using isnewerthan determined that $(global_vars.file2) was not modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";

}

Full Policy

body common control {

    inputs => {
       "libraries/cfengine_stdlib.cf",
    };

}

bundle agent robot
{
  reports:
"                                    77777777777";
"                                   77777777777777";
"                                    777 7777 777";
"                                  7777777777777";
"                                   777777777777";
"                                    777 7777 77";
"                                    ";
"                           ZZZZ     ZZZ ZZZZ ZZZ     ZZZZ";
"                          ZZZZZ    ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ    ZZZZZ ";
"                        ZZZZZZZ    ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ     ZZZZZZZ";
"                         ZZZZ      -------------      ZZZZZZ";
"                       ZZZZZ        !CFENGINE!        ZZZZZ";
"                         ZZZZ      -------------      ZZZZZ";
"                       ZZZZZ       ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ       ZZZZZ";
"                        ZZZ        ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ         ZZZ";
"                       ZZZZZ       ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ        ZZZZZ";
"                     ..?ZZZ+,,,,,  ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ       ZZZZZ";
"                    ...ZZZZ~  ,::  ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ         ZZZZ";
"                    ..,ZZZZZ,::::::                     ZZZZZ";
"                        ZZZ                              ZZZ";
"                                  ~       ===+";
"                                    ZZZZZZZZZZZZZI??";
"                                    ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ$???";
"                                    7Z$+ ZZ  ZZZ???II";
"                                    ZZZZZ+   ZZZZZIIII";
"                                 ZZZZZ    ZZZZZ III77";
"                              +++  +$ZZ???   ZZZ";
"                              +++??ZZZZZIIIIZZZZZ";
"                               ????ZZZZZIIIIZZZZZ";
"                                ??IIZZZZ 7777ZZZ";
"                                 IIZZZZZ  77ZZZZZ";
"                                  I$ZZZZ   $ZZZZ";


}

bundle common global_vars
{
    vars:

      "gccexec" string => getenv("GCC_BIN",255);
      "rmexec" string => getenv("RM_BIN",255);

      "aoutbin" string => getenv("AOUT_BIN",255);
      "workdir" string => getenv("WORK_DIR",255);

      "aoutexec" string => "$(workdir)/$(aoutbin)";

      "file1name" string => getenv("CFE_FILE1",255);
      "file2name" string => getenv("CFE_FILE2",255);

      "file1" string => "$(workdir)/$(file1name)";
      "file2" string => "$(workdir)/$(file2name)";

    classes:
      "gclass" expression => "any";

}


bundle agent packages
{
  vars:

      "match_package" slist => {
        "gcc"
      };

  packages:
      "$(match_package)"
      package_policy => "add",
      package_method => yum;

  reports:

    gclass::
        "Package gcc installed";
        "*********************************";

}

bundle agent create_aout_source_file
{

  # This bundle creates the source file that will be compiled in bundle agent create_aout.
  # See that bunlde's comments for more information.

  vars:

    # An slist is used here instead of a straight forward string because it doesn't seem possible to create
    # line endings using \n when using a string to insert text into a file.

    "c" slist => {"#include <stdlib.h>","#include <stdio.h>","#include <sys/stat.h>","#include <string.h>","void main()","{char file1[255];strcpy(file1,\"$(global_vars.file1)\");char file2[255];strcpy(file2,\"$(global_vars.file2)\");struct stat time1;int i = lstat(file1, &time1);struct stat time2;int j = lstat(file2, &time2);if (time1.st_mtime < time2.st_mtime){printf(\"Newer\");}else{if(time1.st_mtim.tv_nsec < time2.st_mtim.tv_nsec){printf(\"Newer\");}else{printf(\"Not newer\");}}}"};

  files:
      "$(global_vars.workdir)/a.c"
      perms => system,
      create => "true",
      edit_line => Insert("@(c)");

  reports:
    "The source file $(global_vars.workdir)/a.c has been created. It will be used to compile the binary a.out, which will provide more accurate file stats to compare two files than the built in CFEngine functionality for comparing file stats, including modification time. This information will be used to determine of the second of the two files being compared is newer or not.";
    "*********************************";

}

bundle edit_line Insert(name)
{
   insert_lines:
      "$(name)";
}

bundle agent create_aout
{

    classes:

    "doesfileacexist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.workdir)/a.c");
    "doesaoutexist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.aoutbin)");

  vars:

    # Removes any previous binary
    "rmaout" string => execresult("$(global_vars.rmexec) $(global_vars.aoutexec)","noshell");

    doesfileacexist::
    "compilestr" string => "$(global_vars.gccexec) $(global_vars.workdir)/a.c -o $(global_vars.aoutexec)";
    "gccaout" string => execresult("$(compilestr)","noshell");

  reports:
    doesfileacexist::
      "gcc output: $(gccaout)";
      "Creating aout using $(compilestr)";
    !doesfileacexist::
      "Cannot compile a.out, $(global_vars.workdir)/a.c does not exist.";   
    doesaoutexist::
      "The binary application aout has been compiled from the source in the create_aout_source_file bundle. It uses the stat library to compare two files, determine if the modified times are different, and whether the second file is newer than the first. The difference between this application and using CFEngine's built in support for getting file stats (e.g. filestat, isnewerthan), which provides file modification time accurate to a second. However, in order to better compare two files might sometimes require parts of a second as well. The stat library provides the extra support for retrieving the additional information required to get better accuracy (down to parts of a second), and is utilized by the binary application a.out that is compiled within the create_aout bundle.";
      "*********************************";

}


bundle agent test_delete
{

  files:
      "$(global_vars.file1)"
      delete => tidy;
}

bundle agent delete_file(fname)
{

  files:
      "$(fname)"
      delete => tidy;
  reports:
    "Deleted $(fname)";
}

body contain del_file
{

  useshell => "useshell";

}

bundle agent do_files_exist_1

{

  classes:

    "doesfile1exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file1)");
    "doesfile2exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file2)");

  methods:

    doesfile1exist::

    "any" usebundle => delete_file("$(global_vars.file1)"); 
    doesfile2exist::
    "any" usebundle => delete_file("$(global_vars.file2)"); 
  reports:

    !doesfile1exist::
      "$(global_vars.file1) does not exist.";
    doesfile1exist::
      "$(global_vars.file1) did exist. Call to delete it was made.";    

    !doesfile2exist::
      "$(global_vars.file2) does not exist.";
    doesfile2exist::
      "$(global_vars.file2) did exist. Call to delete it was made.";    

}


bundle agent create_file_1
{

  files:
      "$(global_vars.file1)"
      perms => system,
      create => "true";

  reports:
    "$(global_vars.file1) has been created";
}


bundle agent outer_bundle_1
{
    files:

       "$(global_vars.file1)"
       create    => "false",
       edit_line => inner_bundle_1;
}

bundle agent copy_a_file
{
  files:

      "$(global_vars.file2)"
      copy_from => local_cp("$(global_vars.file1)");

  reports:
     "$(global_vars.file1) has been copied to $(global_vars.file2)";
     "*********************************";
}

bundle agent do_files_exist_2

{

  methods:

    "any" usebundle => does_file_exist($(global_vars.file1));
    "any" usebundle => does_file_exist($(global_vars.file2));

}

bundle agent does_file_exist(filename)
{
  vars:
      "filestat" string => filestat("$(filename)","mtime");

  classes:
      "fileexists" expression => fileexists("$(filename)");

  reports:

    fileexists::

      "$(filename) exists. Last Modified Time = $(filestat).";

    !fileexists::

      "$(filename) does not exist";
}

bundle agent list_file_1
{

  methods:  
    "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file1));
    "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file2));
  reports:
    "*********************************";

}

bundle agent exec_aout
{

  classes:
    "doesaoutexist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.aoutbin)");

  vars:
    doesaoutexist::
    "aout" string => execresult("$(global_vars.aoutexec)","noshell");

  reports:
    doesaoutexist::
    "*********************************";
    "$(global_vars.aoutbin) determined that $(global_vars.file2) is $(aout) than $(global_vars.file1)";
    "*********************************";
    !doesaoutexist::
    "Executable $(global_vars.aoutbin) does not exist.";

}

bundle agent stat
{

  classes:

    "doesfile1exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file1)");
    "doesfile2exist" expression => fileexists("$(global_vars.file2)");

  vars:

    doesfile1exist::

    "file1" string => "$(global_vars.file1)";
    "file2" string => "$(global_vars.file2)";

    "file1_stat" string => execresult("/usr/bin/stat -c \"%y\" $(file1)","noshell");
    "file1_split1" slist => string_split($(file1_stat)," ",3);
    "file1_split2" string => nth("file1_split1",1);
    "file1_split3" slist => string_split($(file1_split2),"\.",3);
    "file1_split4" string => nth("file1_split3",1);

    "file2_stat" string => execresult("/usr/bin/stat -c \"%y\" $(file2)","noshell");
    "file2_split1" slist => string_split($(file2_stat)," ",3);
    "file2_split2" string => nth("file2_split1",1);
    "file2_split3" slist => string_split($(file2_split2),"\.",3);
    "file2_split4" string => nth("file2_split3",1);

  methods:

      "any" usebundle => exec_aout();

  reports:
    doesfile1exist::
      "Parts of a second extracted extracted from stat for $(file1): $(file1_split4). Full stat output for $(file1): $(file1_stat)";
      "Parts of a second extracted extracted from stat for $(file2): $(file2_split4). Full stat output for $(file2): $(file2_stat)";
      "Using the binary Linux application stat to compare two files can help determine if the modified times between two files are different. The difference between the stat application using its additional flags and using CFEngine's built in support for getting and comparing file stats (e.g. filestat, isnewerthan) is that normally the accuracy is only to the second of the file's modified time. In order to better compare two files requires parts of a second as well, which the stat command can provide with some additional flags. Unfortunately the information must be extracted from the middle of a string, which is what the stat bundle accomplishes using the string_split and nth functions.";
      "*********************************";
    !doesfile1exist::
      "stat: $(global_vars.file1) and probably $(global_vars.file2) do not exist.";

}

bundle agent outer_bundle_2
{
    files:

       "$(global_vars.file2)"
       create    => "false",
       edit_line => inner_bundle_2;

}

bundle edit_line inner_bundle_1
{
  vars:

    "msg" string => "Helloz to World!";

  insert_lines:
    "$(msg)";

  reports:
    "inserted $(msg) into $(global_vars.file1)";

}

bundle edit_line inner_bundle_2
{
   replace_patterns:

   "Helloz to World!"
      replace_with => hello_world;

   reports:
      "Text in $(global_vars.file2) has been replaced";

}

body replace_with hello_world
{
   replace_value => "Hello World";
   occurrences => "all";
}


bundle agent list_file_2
{

  methods:

      "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file1));
      "any" usebundle => file_content($(global_vars.file2));    

  classes:

      "ok" expression => isgreaterthan(filestat("$(global_vars.file2)","mtime"),filestat("$(global_vars.file1)","mtime"));
      "newer" expression => isnewerthan("$(global_vars.file2)","$(global_vars.file1)");

  reports:
    "*********************************";
      ok::
         "Using isgreaterthan+filestat determined that $(global_vars.file2) was modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";

      !ok::
         "Using isgreaterthan+filestat determined that $(global_vars.file2) was not modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";
      newer::
         "Using isnewerthan determined that $(global_vars.file2) was modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";
      !newer::
         "Using isnewerthan determined that $(global_vars.file2) was not modified later than $(global_vars.file1).";

}

bundle agent file_content(filename)
{

  vars:

      "file_content" string => readfile( "$(filename)" , "0" );
      "file_stat" string => filestat("$(filename)","mtime");

  reports:
      "Contents of $(filename) = $(file_content). Last Modified Time = $(file_stat).";
      #"The report on contents will only show new content and modifications. Even if the method is called more than once, if the evaluation is exactly the same as the previous call then there will be no report (possibly because the bundle is not evaluated a second time?).";


}

body perms system
{
      mode  => "0640";
}